Root canal treatment, also known as endodontic treatment, is a dental procedure in which the diseased or damaged pulp (core) of a tooth is removed and the inside areas (the pulp chamber and root canals) are filled and sealed. Once the tooth is sufficiently cleaned out and as sterile as possible, the root canal system is sealed off.

Endodontic / Root canal treatment is a speciality of dentistry that deals with diseases of the dental pulp and its supporting structures. In order to understand endodontic treatment, Teeth have several layers. The outside layer of the tooth is composed of a hard layer called enamel. Enamel is supported by an inner layer called dentin, which has at its center a soft tissue known as the pulp. The pulp receives its nourishment supply from vessels which enter the end of the root. Although the pulp is important during development of the tooth, it is not necessary for function of the tooth. The tooth continues to be nourished by the tissues surrounding it even after the pulp is removed.

Why and when are root canal treatments required? 
Decay of the teeth (cavities) if left untreated, generally progress and gradually destroy a significant portion of the tooth before reaching the ‘pulp’ of the tooth. Once this infection reaches the pulp it gives rise to a common ‘dental pain’. At this stage the tooth can only be saved by performing a root canal treatment. This procedure basically save tooth and eliminates dental pain.  

What are the signs of needing root canal treatment?
Signs to look for include pain, prolonged sensitivity to heat or cold, tenderness to touch and chewing, discoloration of the tooth and swelling, drainage and tenderness in the lymph nodes as well as nearby bone and gingival tissues. Sometimes, however, there are no symptoms.

Steps in root canal treatment
   Anesthesia to numb tooth
If tooth is vital, then it is necessary to numb tooth by local anesthesia to make treatment comfortable for patient. If tooth is nonvital, there is no need to anesthetize the tooth.

 Gaining access to the nerve area of the tooth (Root canal opening).
The dentist needs to access that area inside your tooth where the nerve tissue resides to start your root canal treatment. This is accomplished by using a dental drill and making an "access cavity" that extends down to the pulp chamber of the tooth. On posterior teeth this hole is made on the chewing surface of the tooth. On front teeth the access hole is made on the tooth's backside.

   cleaning the tooth
The next step of the root canal treatment process is to clean out the interior of your tooth (the pulp chamber and all root canals). This cleaning process removes any bacteria, toxins, nerve tissue, and related debris that are harbored inside your tooth.
Most of the part of cleaning process is accomplished by using "root canal files" and copious irrigation. Root canal files look like straight pins with rough surface. These instruments literally are files and are used as such.
Your dentist will work a series of root canal files, each of increasing diameter, up and down in your tooth while simultaneously using a twisting motion. This action will scrape and scrub the sides of the tooth's root canal(s) and thus cleans it out.

As an additional part of the cleaning process, your dentist will wash your tooth periodically ("irrigate" the tooth) so to help flush away any debris that may present. Traditionally, a number of different solutions have been used for this purpose. Nowadays, sodium hypochlorite is commonly used. An added benefit of sodium hypochlorite is that it is a disinfectant.

   Determining the length of root canal
Radiographs are important for root canal treatment. Throughout a root canal treatment the dentist will need several x-ray pictures of the tooth to determine the position of the instruments and filling material inside the canals. Now days, Apex locator is used to determine length of root canal. The dentist also advises to have a good pre-operative picture to determine the approximate length of the roots and their particular shapes and curvatures.

  Instrumentation used for root canal treatment
The root canals are identified and then cleaned out with special root canal instruments. Some are used by hand; others rotate in a hand piece. They all have the function of removing debris from the canal and smoothing and shaping the walls of the canals to create a smooth, clean surface along the entire length of the tooth root canal. The canals are constantly rinsed to aid in debris removal and canal sterilization. In some, but not all root canal cases, the canals may be dressed with various medications and sealed with a temporary filling material to allow time for the infection to clear.

 Sealing is done in root canals (Obscuration)
Once the tooth root canals are suitably cleaned and shaped and infection free they can be sealed off. A root filling material (usually a rubbery material called gutta percha) is placed into each canal with a special sealer.

  Final restoration becomes important in root canal process
Placing a suitable final restoration is almost as important as the root treatment itself. If the restoration leaks bacteria can migrate down the side of the root sealer and re-infect the tooth. Commonly, silver filling is used for post root canal filling.

In case of badly carious tooth, where there is no sufficient tooth structure to retain filling material, your dentist will have to build up a foundation to strengthen the tooth and support the crown. This procedure is called post and core. A post is a metal rod.

Finally, a crown is made and cemented onto the tooth. If a post and core have been placed in the tooth, the crown is then cemented over the post and core.

Some Myths about Root Canal Treatment
 Teeth that have had endodontic therapy are eventually lost anyway.
Depending on several factors the tooth that is treated with root canal can last lifelong which is listed below:
Expertise with which the treatment is done.
 Proper restoration of tooth is crucial to the entire  treatment which serves below mentioned purposes:
The restoration must be able to provide a lasting seal that prevents contaminates from the oral environment from seeping back into the tooth's root canal space. The restoration must also be one that can help to protect the root canalled tooth from future damage (such as fracture or breakage) by crown.

  Pulling a tooth is a better option than having root canal 
Tooth extraction may be an easier and cheaper choice rather than root canal treatment. This seemingly simple and inexpensive choice, however, may prove to be a very poor choice in the long run for the following reasons:

If a tooth is removed, its neighboring teeth will tend to shift towards the vacant space, sometimes significantly. 
A change such as this can lead to problems with chewing, aesthetic concerns or jaw joint function. 
Alignment changes can also create food traps or make it so your teeth are more difficult to clean. If so, you will be placed at greater risk for developing problems with tooth decay and gum disease.   

  Having endodontic therapy hurts
For most of the patients the procedure involved in root canal is no different than other dental procedures. Moreover the dentist will numb the affected area with local anesthetic. So it may be a boring session for a patient while the dentist carry out the end-to-end procedure however, the chances for any excruciating pain is almost negative.

  A woman who is pregnant can't undergo endodontic therapy
Thankfully it is only a myth and not a fact. However a pregnant woman should consult before going for root canal as the protocol will vary considering her pregnancy.
Certain issues can be considered in case of root canal carrying out on a pregnant woman: 

Treatment timing : A consideration must be made that weighs the timing of the pregnant patient's root canal treatment in regards to their overall comfort and the wellbeing of them and their fetus. 

Appointment length and number of visits: Instead of one relatively longer appointment, in order to keep a pregnant patient physically comfortable, their root canal treatment may need to be divided intoshorter visits.

The use of radiographs (x-rays): However, it is likely that the dentist will want to employ techniques that help them to keep the needed number of x-rays to a minimum in order to avoid the fetus to get exposed to X-rays. The use of Apex Locator avoids the x-rays.

Benefits At 
Near 100 % success rate of Root Canal Treatment.
Because of the modern advanced technology available with Dr. Katarmal’s, root canal treatment is a relatively simple procedure with little or no discomfort to the patient.
Dr. Katarmal has a vast experience of root canal treatment.
Most of the cases of root canal treatment we completed in single visit. Single visit root canal treatment is our speciality.
We take highest precautions in sterilization during treatment, we use disposable rubber dam in every patients.
We have  NSK (USA) Endomotor, make root canal easy and comfortable to patient
Propex Apex Locator(USA) to make perfect root canal treatment.